This is a collection of papers which I find especially fascinating.
On atypical and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi
Corkscrew shaped spirochetes are only one of the possible forms that Borrelia may assume. Cystic forms or Granular Forms (so called “coccoid “), L forms, “Bleb” forms and “Ring” forms also are present in tissues infected with Borrelia.
This 2012 case report of “Borrelia endocarditis” in a human from France illustrates borrelia infection proven by advanced PCR DNA analysis and sequencing in the most sophisticated lab in France. The species causing the heart valve infection was not the USA strain of borrelia burgdorferi (Bb sensu stricto ss) but rather a member of the European borrelia burgdorferi family ( sensu latu sl) Borrelia Afzelii.
Alluded to in the French case report is a second case of human bacterial endocarditis from the Czech republic due to the separate borrelia strain Borrelia bissetti.
Lyme endocarditis. (.pdf) Hidri N, Barraud O, de Martino S, Garnier F, Paraf F, Martin C, Sekkal S, Laskar M, Jaulhac B, Ploy MC. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Aug 30. See article on PubMed here
Eyelid and Eye Tick bites
These papers provide very clear pictures of ticks and tick bites.
Eyelid Tick Bite. Santos-Bueso, E., Calvo-Gonzalez, et al. ARCH SOC ESP OFTALMOL 2006; 81: 173-176
This paper discusses Strep Bovis, Endocarditis and Gastrointestinal Cancer Risk.
It looks at the role of biofilm formation:
1. Biofilms on Heart valve vegetations in Endocarditis 2. The suspected role of biofilm formation in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract
This section of the paper is especially relevant:
“Moreover, all tested strains showed the capability to adhere to polystyrole surfaces and form biofilms . Another study which assessed 17 endocarditis-derived human isolates, identified 15 S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus, one S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus (biotype II/2) and one S. infantarius subspecies coli (biotype II/1) for their in vitro adherence to components of the extracellular matrix. They found that S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus has very efficient adherence characteristics to the host extracellular matrix; this bacteria showed powerful adherence to collagen type I and type IV, fibrinogen, collagen type V, and fibronectin  (Figure 1). These adherence criteria make S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus a successful colonizer in both intestinal and cardiac tissues. Therefore, it has been stated that the relationship between S. bovis/gallolyticus endocarditis and S. bovis/gallolyticus colonic tumors suggests the existence of certain adhesins on the cell wall of these bacteria allowing the colonization of both colonic and vascular tissues [106,107].”
This Landmark Article from Drs Coutts in 1952 describes Cystic forms of Treponema pallidum, with Buds and Granular forms in serum taken from Syphilitic Chancres. The authors survey the previous literature dating back to Schaudinn and Hoffman, and cite the views of many other distinguished syphilologists endorsing the view that Pathogenic spirochetes have a complex life-cycle which includes vegetative (spiral) and diverse cystic and granular forms.