Bovine colostrum (BC) has been reported to enhance immune function, reduce fat accumulation and facilitate the movement of glucose to the muscle. However, very few attempts have been made to examine its anti-diabetic effects in diabetes patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BC decreases blood glucose, as well as cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and ketones levels, which can be elevated by obesity and stress in Type 2 diabetic patients. Sixteen patients (men=8, women=8) with Type 2 diabetes were randomized into the study. Each ingested 5 g of BC on an empty stomach every morning and night for 4 weeks. Blood glucose, ketones (beta-hydroxybutyric acid), total cholesterol and TGs were measured every week. In both the men and women, blood glucose levels at 2 and 8 h postprandial decreased continually during the experimental period. The rate of decrease in blood glucose at 8 h postprandial was not different between the men and women, but was higher in the women (14.25+/-2.66) than in the men (10.96+/-1.82%) at 2 h postprandial. Total cholesterol and TG levels decreased significantly in both the men and women after 4 weeks. Also, beta-hydroxybutyric acid level decreased with BC ingestion, but this was not significant. These results suggest that BC can decrease levels of blood glucose and ketones, as well as reduce cholesterol and TGs, all of which may cause complications in Type 2 diabetic patients.